Online Shopping and the Transaction Protection in ECommerce: A case Of Online Purchasing in Libya
Journal Article

Hadya Soliman Hadya Hawedi, (06-2012), International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications: IJSEP, 2 (6), 1-4

CHALLENGES OF SECURITY, PROTECTION AND TRUST ON E-COMMERCE: A CASE OF ONLINE PURCHASING IN LIBYA
Journal Article

Hadya Soliman Hadya Hawedi, (05-2012), International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering: IJARCCE, 1 (3), 141-145

The influence of design team attributes on green design performance of building projects
Journal Article

The design phase is the most important phase in determining the green performance of building projects. The performance of the design team is crucial. The growing importance of sustainability globally necessitates the inclusion of green criteria in the design team selection process. Therefore, a competent design teams is required to have a range of attributes as the basis for design decisions. The propose of this study to identify current green design performance level of design teams of building projects and establish key design attributes influencing green design performance. To achieve mentioned aim a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 274 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Prior to analysis of data WINSTEPS software were used to determine validity and reliability of date. Descriptive analysis data includes quantitative and qualitative. In general, design team attributes were moderate (3.32). The general design team attributes were high such experience (3.81), communication (3.43) and leadership effectiveness (3.48). However, green attributes of design team were moderate such as green knowledge (2.98), green skills (3.13) and green initiatives (2.84). The result indicates that most design teams have inadequate knowledge and skills to produce high green design performance of building projects. Therefore, to overcome green design complexity, careful selecting design team members and more education and training courses on green building are required to deal with green design requirements.

Mohamed S Abd Elforgani, Ismail Rahmat, (04-2012), Environmental Management and Sustainable Development: Micro think Institute, 1 (1), 10-30

Linear free energy relationships applied to the reactivity and the 13C NMR chemical shifts in 4–[[(substituted phenyl)imino]methyl] benzoic acids
Journal Article

Linear free energy relationships (LFER) were applied to the kinetic data and 13C NMR chemical shifts in 4-[[(substituted phenyl)imino]methyl]benzoic acids. The correlation analysis for the kinetic data and substituent-induced chemical shifts (SCS) with σ using single substituent parameter (SSP), as well as inductive (σI) and various resonance (σR) parameters using dual-substituent parameter (DSP), were carried out. The presented calculations account satisfactorily for the polar and resonance substituent effects having similar contributions at all carbons studied. Negative ρ values were found for several correlations (reverse substituent effect). Exceptionally good Hammett correlation of 13C NMR chemical shifts of azomethine carbon with electrophilic substituent constants σ+ indicates a significant resonance interaction in the aniline part of molecules. The conformations of investigated compounds have been studied by the use of DFT method, and together with 13C NMR chemical shifts and kinetic data, give a better insight into the influence of such a structure on the transmission of electronic substituent effects. New σ constants for substituted phenyliminomethyl group have been calculated.

Aleksandar D. Marinković, Bratislav Ž. Jovanović, Fathi H. Assaleh, Vlatka V. Vajs, Milan I. Juranić, (03-2012), Journal of Molecular Structure: Elsevier, 1011 (1), 158-165

الصراعات في القرن الأفريقي وتأثيرها على الأمن القومي العربي
مقال في مجلة علمية

تشير الأحداث التي تشهدها دول منطقة القرن الأفريقي إلى استمرار سلسلة الانشقاقات والخلافات التي تعاني منها دول المنطقة داخلياً وإقليمياً عبر تاريخها،وهو ما جعل التنافس والصراع السمة الغالبة على شبكة العلاقات الداخلية والإقليمية لدول هذه المنطقة ، وما من شك أن لهذه الصراعات وما يتمخض عنها من نتائج أثرها المباشر على أمن منطقة البحر الأحمر والقرن الأفريقي ، والتي في الواقع تضم عدداً من الدول العربية ، ففي السنوات الأخيرة شهدت المنطقة العديد من التطورات التي تمس علاقات الجوار الجغرافي والحدود والمواني وخطوط أنابيب النفط ، ولذا تحاول هذه الدراسة بلورة بعض القضايا والإشكاليات الخاصة بالصراعات في منطقة القرن الأفريقي وأثر هذه الصراعات على الأمن القومي العربي ، من خلال تقسيمها إلى ثلاثة فصول يبين الفصل الأول أهمية هذه المنطقة ، وحدود رقعتها الجغرافية وأهم الجوانب التاريخية لها ، أما في الفصل الثاني فتحدث عن طبيعة الصراعات في منطقة القرن الأفريقي ، كما تعرض للسياسة الإسرائيلية في هذه المنطقة وعلاقات إسرائيل بدول المنطقة ، أما الفصل الثالث فتحدث عن مفهوم الأمن القومي العربي ومصادر تهديده ، وتناول محدداته وما ينبغي فعله من قبل الدول العربية لتلافي أثار هذه الصراعات .  


كمال سالم فرج الشكري، (02-2012)، مجلة الاقتصاد والتجارة: مجلة الاقتصاد والتجارة، 1 (1)، 134-153

قياس رضا العملاء عن جودة الخدمات المصرفية الإسلامية - دراسة ميدانية على بنك سورية الدولي الإسلامي
مقال في مجلة علمية

تهدف الدراسة الى قياس رضا العملاء عن جودة الخدمات المصرفية الإسلامية والى التعرف عن مدى رضا العملاء عن جودة هذه الخدمات، وتوصلت الدراسة الى مجموعة من النتائج منها، لا يوجد اختلاف بين توقعات العملاء لأبعاد جودة الخدمات المصرفية الإسلامية المقدمة من المصرف محل الدراسة وبين إدراكهم لمستوى الأداء الفعلي لتلك الخدمات، وتم التوصل الى جملة من النتائج أهمها، ضرورة قيام إدارة بنك سورية الدولي الإسلامي بالعمل على تضييق الفجوة بين توقعات العملاء لمستوى الجودة وما يقدم اليهم بالفعل حتى يحقق رضائهم.

خالد صالح عبود اسباقة، (01-2012)، جامعة دمشق: مجلة جامعة دمشق للعلوم الاقتصادية والقانونية، 2 (28)، 551-572

Green design performance of Malaysian building projects-descriptive study
Journal Article

The aim of this work was to investigate whether the Malaysian current building projects are considered as “Green Designs”. To achieve this aim a questionnaire survey was conducted. A sample of 274 respondents is covered, which included architects and engineers in the building design and consultancy sectors. WINSTEPS software is used in Rasch modeling to determine the validity and reliability of the data. Descriptive data analysis (quantitative and qualitative) is done. The results reveal that design green building performance, in general, energy efficiency, and indoor air quality requirements are considered moderate. The majority of the designed buildings are with low utilization of recycled and reused materials. Moreover, high utilization of regional materials, low consideration to water efficiency requirements and environmental innovations are also moderate. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective Design team attributes and client’s qualities may increase performance of the design green building performance in order to enhance building performance and reduce building impact on environment.

Mohamed S Abd Elforgani, (11-2011), Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN): ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (11), 68-78

Regulatory aspects of innate immune responses
PhD Thesis

Activation of innate immunity is regulated by a variety of signaling molecules within

the immune cells. The present thesis was aimed to improve our understanding

innate signaling mechanism and their possible use as bio-indicators of exposure and

disease. The first part of the thesis deals with the involvement of TOM1L1 (Target

of Myb1 like 1) in innate immune signaling and regulation of inflammatory cytokines

in immune cells (study I and II). The initial event of T-cells activation depend

on the recruitment of Src family kinases Fyn and Lck, leading to interleukine-2 (IL-

2) production in T cells. Understanding the regulatory aspects of IL-2 induction in

T-cells is of importance as IL-2 is a key regulator for T-cell proliferation and survival.

Interaction screening indicated the ability of TOM1L1 protein to interact with

Fyn, and Lck, that is important for IL-2 production in Jurkat T-cells. TOM1L1

silencing decreased the levels of CD3/CD28 dependent induction of IL-2 in Jurkat

T-cells, and LPS dependent induction of TNF-α in THP-1. Furthermore, overexpression

of TOM1L1 in Jurkat T-cells causes an increase of STAT3 expression. This

was accompanied by an increase in the levels of IL-1β dependent induction of IL-6

and TNF-α in THP-1 cells. These results indicate that TOM1L11 participate in

regulation of innate immune response. The second part of the thesis deals with

development of innate immune signaling responses used as a diagnosis tools for

disease and exposure (study III and IV). Inflammatory diseases are associated with

innate immune reactions. In response to inflammation, the immune cells release

inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and CXCL8. These

cytokines are regulated by stress related kinases include MAP kinase proteins such

as ERK1-2, JNK, and MAPK p38, through activation of transcription factors AP-1,

ATF-2, and NF-AT. In a clinical study, it was observed that activated MAPK p38

has a potential role in the regulation of IL-10 expression in intermittent claudication.

However, expression of IL-10 and MAPK p38 was opposed in stable angina

group. Therefore, targeting MAPK p38 in inflammatory disease such as cardiovascular

diseases, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis might be useful in development of

treatment strategies. Innate immune reactions can also be used to monitor stress

related inflammatory responses following environmental exposure of immune cells.

Inflammatory responses of exposure were studied by in vitro exposure to waters

from sewage treatment works and recipient waters. The analysis shows that exposure

to inland waters can result in activated immune responses and that these responses

are both site dependent and vary over time.

Keywords: Innate immunity, TOM1L1, inflammatory responses.

Ahmed Marwan Bashir Dabaag El Marghani, (09-2011), دولة السويد: Orebro University,

Experimental investigations of the joint behaviour - Robustness assessement of steel and steel-concrete composite frames
Conference paper

Eurocodes [1], [2] cover presently only the so-called basic design situations where the beam-to-column joints are subjected to hogging bending with a negligible influence of the axial force. Design requirements for structural robustness in case of exceptional or extreme actions are being developed in which the joint ductility demand is one of the primary requirement [3][6]. Localized structural damage due to these actions may propagate through a large portion of a structural system causing its entire collapse or the progressive collapse process may be restricted to the relatively small region that is in proportion to the load effects caused. The latter might be provided by design ensuring the ability of transfer the so-called tying forces. Eurocodes do not give any guidelines on how to calculate the tying resistance of joints, mainly because of lack of experimental evidence on the joint ductility under extreme actions. For robust design, joints need to pose the rotation capacity required for inelastic redistribution process to take place on the so-called alternative equilibrium path. The capability of a structure to sustain local damage is evaluated by a notionally conducted removal of its column(s) and checking whether the local damage may be absorbed by the deteriorated structural system. This requires investigations conducted into the behaviour of joint responses to sagging bending accompanied by an axial tying. This paper is concerned with experimental tests of steel and steel-concrete composite sub-frames through which the beam-to-column joint behaviour in typical standard and exceptional design situations is possible to be evaluated. Problems related to the joint strength, stiffness and rotation capacity response under sagging moment in case of the column removal that simulates the frame system behaviour in an exceptional situation are addressed and conclusions drawn.

بشير علي خليفة صالح, (08-2011), Budapest, Hungary: Conference: 6th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, 324-328

The significance of 24-norcholestanes, 4-methylsteranes and dinosteranes in oils and source-rocks from East Sirte Basin (Libya)
Journal Article

The present paper involves a detailed evaluation of specific steroid biomarkers by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC-metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) analyses of several crude oils and source rocks from the East Sirte Basin. 24-Norcholestanes, dinosteranes, 4a-methyl-24-ethylcholestanes and triaromatic steroids have been identified in both source-rocks and crude oils of the East Sirte Basin. Diatoms, dinoflagellates (including those potentially associated with corals) and/or their direct ancestors are amongst the proposed sources of these biomarkers. These biomarker parameters have been used to establish a Mesozoic oil–source correlation of the East Sirte Basin. Hydropyrolysis of an extant coral extract revealed a similar distribution (although immature) of dinosteranes and 4a-methyl-24-ethylcholestanes also observed in the Sirte oils and source-rocks. This is consistent with the presence of dinoflagellates present during the deposition of the Mesozoic aged East Sirte Basin Formations. A good data correlation for the rock extracts revealed a similar distribution of 3,24-dimethyl triaromatic steroids, 3-methyl-24-ethylcholestanes, 4-methyl-24-ethylcholestanes and 2-methyl-24-ethylcholestanes observed in one of the oil families and associated source-rocks for the East Sirte Basin.

S. Aboglila, K. Grice, (05-2011), Elsevier: Applied Geochemistry, 16 (1), 1694-1705